At some point in your boating career you will probably want to anchor. You may want to stop and fish, swim, have lunch or stay overnight. A second reason to drop anchor may be to control the boat if bad weather is blowing you ashore or if your engine has quit and the wind and current are pushing you into shallow water or other boatsThe first step in anchoring is to select the proper anchor. In spite of claims to the contrary, there is no single anchor design that is best in all conditions. On most pleasure boats, the three anchors you will find most are the fluke or danforth type, the plow and the mushroom anchor. Here are some tips from BoatSafe.com
Select an area that offers maximum shelter from wind, current, boat traffic etc.
Pick a spot with swinging room in all directions. Should the wind change, your boat will swing bow to the wind or current, whichever is stronger.
Determine depth and bottom conditions and calculate the amount of rode you will put out.
If other boats are anchored in the area you select, ask the boat adjacent to the spot you select what scope they have out so that you can anchor in such a manner that you will not bump into the neighboring vessel.
Anchor with the same method used by nearby boats. If they are anchored bow and stern, you should too. If they are anchored with a single anchor from the bow, do not anchor bow and stern. Never anchor from the stern alone, this could cause the boat to swamp or capsize.
Rig the anchor and rode. Check shackles to make sure they are secured with wire tied to prevent the screw shaft from opening.
Lay out the amount of rode you will need on deck in such a manner that it will follow the anchor into the water smoothly without tangling.
Cleat off the anchor line at the point you want it to stop. (Don’t forget or you’ll be diving for your anchor.)
Stop your boat and lower your anchor until it lies on the bottom. This should be done up-wind or up-current from the spot you have selected. Slowly start to motor back, letting out the anchor rode. Backing down slowly will assure that the chain will not foul the anchor and prevent it from digging into the bottom.
When all the anchor line has been let out, back down on the anchor with engine in idle reverse to help set the anchor. (Be careful not to get the anchor line caught in your prop.)
While reversing on a set anchor, keep a hand on the anchor line. A dragging anchor will telegraph itself as it bumps along the bottom. An anchor that is set will not shake the line.
When the anchor is firmly set, look around for reference points in relation to the boat. You can sight over your compass to get the bearing of two different fixed points (house, rock, tower, etc. ) Over the next hour or so, make sure those reference points are in the same place. If not you’re probably dragging anchor.
Begin anchor watch. Everyone should check occasionally to make sure you’re not drifting.
Read more: http://www.boatsafe.com/nauticalknowhow/anchorsteps.htm
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